Voxtel Blog

Voxtel Paper Published in Journal of Applied Physics

April 9, 2013

The Journal of Applied Physics has published a paper authored by Voxtel staff titled Time resolved gain and excess noise properties of InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with cascaded discrete gain layer multiplication regionsThe paper, co-authored with contributors from the University of New Mexico, discusses the temporal properties of the count distributions and low order statistical moments of an APD avalanche buildup process. The high gain of Voxtel’s single carrier multiplication (SCM) APDs allow for a convenient platform to investigate APD properties over the times of the impulse response where pulse detection is performed. The paper shows that the traditional McIntyre equation often used to model APD performance is inadequate for describing photoreceiver performance. The paper also shows the performance benefits of Voxtel’s SCM APD technology compared to conventional APD technology.

The paper is free of charge from the Journal of Applied Physics  (https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4794345)

This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in the Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 113, Mar. 2013 and may be found at https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4794345.

The complete abstract is below

To predict pulse detection performance when implemented in high speed photoreceivers, temporally resolved measurements of a 10-stage InAlAs/InGaAs single carrier multiplication (SCM) avalanche photodiode (APD)’s avalanche response to short multi-photon laser pulses were explained using instantaneous (time resolved) pulse height statistics of the device’s impulse response. Numeric models of the junction carrier populations as a function of the time following injection of a primary photo-electron were used to create the probability density functions (pdfs) of the instances of the avalanche buildup process. The numeric pdfs were used to generate low frequency gain and excess noise models, which were in good agreement with analytic models of multiple discrete low-gain-stage APDs and with measured excess noise data. The numeric models were then used to generate the instantaneous and cumulative instantaneous low order statistics of the instances of the impulse response. It is shown that during the early times of the impulse response, the SCM APDs have lower excess noise than the pseudo-DC measurements and the common APD models used to describe them. The methods of determining the time resolved low order statistics of APDs are described and the importance of using time-resolved models of APD gain and noise is discussed.

© 2013 American Institute of Physics